9 November: Jenna DiRito (PhD), 'Exploring the future of renal transplantation: reconditioning, repairing, and assessing human kidneys outside of the body'
The shortage of suitable donor organs remains one of the leading issues facing renal transplantation today. In an attempt to close the growing gap between available donors and recipients in need of an organ, surgeons have begun to accept less ideal kidneys for their patients. These marginal organs are more susceptible to injury and do not function as well as an ideal organ would in an intended recipient. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is a technique that has been recently introduced into clinical practice to recondition and repair these marginal kidneys at near body temperature. While on the NMP circuit, the organ can be assessed for functionality prior to implantation. In addition, NMP serves as a platform for the delivery of therapeutics. The isolated setting of NMP obviates problems of targeting a particular therapy to a specific organ and has the potential to reduce harmful side effects seen in systemic drug delivery. There are a number of emerging therapies that have shown promise in NMP. Nutrients, therapeutic gases, stem cells, gene therapies, and nanoparticles – a newly explored modality – have been successfully administered during NMP to date. In this seminar we will explore how NMP can be used as a larger platform both for organ assessment and isolated drug delivery.
Jenna is a second year PhD student in Surgery at the University of Cambridge. She is generously funded by the NIHR BTRU and the Department of Surgery at the Yale School of Medicine. Jenna began her training at Yale University with an accelerated, intensive Bachelor of Science degree in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology that she earned in May of 2017. She was awarded the Edgar J. Boell Prize for her undergraduate research defining nanoparticle kinetics in vivo using quantitative microscopy. Her current work is focused on optimizing therapeutic nanoparticle treatments in a normothermic kidney perfusion model. She has been presented with the unique opportunity of transferring surgical and nanoparticle technologies between both institutions of Cambridge and Yale to help bring this technique forward. After her PhD, she will return to the United States to pursue medical school with aspirations of ultimately becoming an academic surgeon.
16 November: Tugba Basaran (Bye Fellow), 'Global Labour and the Migrant Premium: The Cost of Working Abroad'
Reducing costs of international labour migration has become central to the global agenda. As high-skilled workers are enticed to cross borders by the promise of higher wages and lofty benefits, low-skilled recruits are considered indefinitely dispensable and bear tremendous costs for working abroad. For low-skilled employment, including domestic, agricultural, factory and construction work, recruitment costs alone can amount to ten months of foreign earnings and many are likely to lose one to two years of foreign earnings, if all worker-borne costs are considered. The poorest and most marginalized often pay the highest premium. This collection provides the first systematic account of costs bourn by migrants, that is the premium that migrants pay to live and work abroad. We seek to reveal what these premium costs entail, how they are distributed and who encounters them where.